Mine Pars

Gilsonit: Industrial Asphalt
Gilsonit (uintaite), Glance Pitch and Granamite are natural occurring hydrocarbon substances characterized by a high softening point (above 110° C) in the class known as asphaltite. They are mined much like other minerals and sold essentially in their native state.
They are fully compatible with asphalt and have long been known as asphalt hardeners and reinforcing agents. Gilsonit is currently sold all over the world as an asphalt modifier in the form of a dry bulk solid granular powder.
Gilsonit™ s benefits to asphalt pavements include increased stability, resistance to deformations problems such as rutting and shoving, resistance to water striping and increased load bearing ability. Gilsonit functions by making the pavements harder, stronger and increases asphalt’s adhesion to aggregates.

It is generally regarded that Gilsonit reduces pavements’ low temperature properties making them susceptible to thermal cracking. Gilsonit melted into hot asphalt will reduce penetration and increase viscosity of the asphalt binder. Gilsonit may also be mixed with aggregate prior to combining with the asphalt binder.
Gilsonit modified asphalt pavements have been particularly successfully in highly stressed traffic areas. Gilsonit, as the majority constituent, has been combined with virgin polymers such as styrene – butadiene – styrene (SBS) and Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA). Gilsonit modified asphalt binders generally do not increase asphalt binder content requirement in pavement mixtures.
Performance grading of asphalt binders and pavement mixtures became a reality with the conclusion of the, “FHWA” 50 million dollars, Strategic Highway Research Program, “SHRP”, in March of 1993. “SHRP” developed new asphalt binder specifications and test criteria based on the engineering properties related to pavement performance. The new emphasis is on low temperature performance of aged binder materials.
Low temperature flexibility of aged asphalt binders became significant. Performance Grade “PG,” asphalt is based on the predicted temperature performance both high and low of asphalt binders. Neither Gilsonit nor post vulcanized crumb rubber have performed well under “SHRP” evaluations. “SHRP” specifications will cause increased demand for modified asphalt as state departments of transportation adopt the “PG” specifications.

Asphalt has been the subject of exhaustive study to improve characteristics for use in paving. Various properties of asphalt are manipulated to produce a product that has the appropriate wear properties, rut resistance, fatigue and low temperature cracking resistance, adhesion strength, viscosity and pour point. Rut resistance is resistance to longitudinal surface depressions in the wheel paths.
Adhesion strength is the maximum adhesion strength of the joint sealant and the joint reservoir, including but not limited to, between the aggregate and the binder.

Shove resistance is resistance to permanent, longitudinal displacement of a localized area of the pavement surface caused by traffic pushing against the pavement. Heavy hydrocarbon that can be derived from, without limitation, natural asphalt (Gilsonit), shale asphalt, bottoms from a solvent deasphalting process, hard asphalt, blown asphalt, stiff refined asphalt, a flux. Asphalt is usually the base ingredient for the primer and the binder.
A primer can be asphalt, fibers (including but not limited to, mineral or cellulose), processing agent (including but not limited to, oligiomeric wax, carboxilated, derivative of oligiomeric wax, or low molecular weight polyolefin), polymeric or elastomeric additive, or asphalt-derived.
A primer melts to the aggregate. Asphalt binders without polymers are referred to as “neat”.

Maximum water and Weather resistance is obtained by using a paint containing Gilsonit and the gas-proofed Tung or Oiticica (or mixtures of the two) oil without the addition of any other drying oil, but it is found that while this combination is commercially usable, it is difficult to brush, and it is preferred to add a viscosity reducing drying oil. For this purpose, it is found that perilla oil is particularly satisfactory.
Other drying oils such as linseed, soya bean, sunflower seed, hempseed, menhaden, or sardine oil may be used instead of the perilla oil. The perilla oil, however, has considerably better drying properties than the other oils mentioned.
Gilsonit, when fluxed with raw tung or oiticica oil, gives an unstable liquid, that is, one which will take on excessive body when aging, and one which is not gas-proof.
On the other hand, when gilsonit is fluxed with tung or oiticicaoils which have been heat-treated with the additions of gums or resins in the ordinary fashion, the resulting paint becomes full of check marks and deteriorates rapidly, particularly upon exposure.
The use of the present type of oils, however, results in a paint which does not take on excessive body upon aging and at the same time does not check and deteriorate rapidly upon exposure.

Driers, such as lead, cobalt, or manganese oxide, or the like, may be incorporated to control the drying time of the finished paint. Thinning oils such as mineral spirits, solvent naphtha, or any good solvent for the gilsonit and the oils, may be incorporated to bring the paint to the desired consistency. This normally requires about 50% to 65% by weight of thinning oils.
As an example of the invention, 50 pounds of gilsonit and 10 pounds of perilla oil are heated to a temperature of 400 to 450 F. and are mechanically agitated until the gilsonit is completely fluxed by the perilla oil. Forty pounds of the gas-proofed tung or oiticica oil (or a mixture thereof) are then added and mechanically mixed until the oils and the gilsonit are completely incorporated into a homogeneous mass. Thinning oils may then be added to bring the paint to the desired consistency, which normally requires about 53% to 55% of the thinning oils. The driers may then be incorporated in the desired percentage.
The percentage of ingredients may, of course, vary within rather wide limits, depending upon the particular characteristics desired in the ultimate product. For example, the percentage of gilsonit in the paint base may vary from 10 to 80%, according to the intensity of the color and the hardness of the film desired. Normally this ratio will be between 25 and 60%. However, for water-proofing on certain interior surfaces it is desirable to have a much harder film, and for certain of such uses it may be desirable to increase the gilsonit to as much as 80%.
While the lower limit of 10% for the gilsonit is lower than will ordinarily be used, a satisfactory and durable paint may be made with as small a proportion of gilsonit as this by incorporating a small amount of carbon black, say 3% to 5% by Weight. 7
The percentage of tung or oiticica oil may likewise vary, but the higher the percentage thereof, the more durable will be the film produced. The preferred range is between 25 and 50% of either tung or oiticica oils, or a mixture thereof. However, the beneficial results of the combination of these gas-proofed oils with gilsonit are obtained over the entire range of Gilsonit concentration given.
In the above percentages any difference is normally made up by a viscosity reducing oil such as perilla. In the absence of such an oil, however, the tung or oiticica oil may be used to complete the paint base.
Pigments such as iron oxide, or chrome green may be incorporated to produce paints of attractive colors and great durability.
A paint prepared in accordance with this invention not only has greater water and Weather resisting properties, but is more resistant to acids and alkalis than a paint comprising gilsonit and a drying oil other than the gas-proofed tung oil.
The term film-forming constituents as used in the claims denote those portions of the film which do not evaporate following application of the paint, but which remain to form the paint film.
The foregoing detailed description has been given for clearness of understanding only, and no unnecessary limitations should be understood therefrom, but the appended claims should be construed as broadly as permissible in view of the prior art.

Oil and Gas:
In oil and gas industry, drilling fluids or liquids perform a diversity of operations that influence the drilling rapidity, efficiency, safety and the cost of drilling operator. An important characteristic of Gilsonit that make it noteworthy for drilling fluid usages is its softening-point temperature. There are many types of drilling fluid systems available such as water base muds, oil base muds, stable foam muds, air or gas base muds from which the right system may be chosen. In water-based muds, it is used as a shale-stabilizing additive and is difficult to evaluate unless tested at or above its softening point. In oil-base muds, it is used as a fluid-loss control agent.
Main drilling mud additives include viscosifying factors, fluid loss control agents, corrosion inhibitors and drilling fluid dispersant cement additives are considered to be critical inputs in the supplementation of any oil and gas well.

Gilsonit is used in cementing slurries to provide density control, scouring action for mud removal, and to support compressive strength development. It has a unique reaction with shale that improves cement bond development and strength. The wellbore is the primary hole on which the final well will be made. Also, wellbores can be encased by steel or cement or in some cases, depending on the situation, may not be encased. In oil wells, it is necessary to encase the wellbore by cement. Adding the Gilsonit material during oil well cementing enhances the isolation characteristics while decreasing the vertiginous Gas flows. These characteristics can result in more effective mud removal which also enhances the environmental factors. Drilling environmental regulations are getting more and stricter around the world.

Cementing Gilsonit – Since Gilsonit, a solid hydrocarbon, was introduced to the oil industry in August 1957 as a cement additive, several thousands of jobs have been performed using the material. These operations have included primary cementing through lost-circulation zones of surface, intermediate, and production pipe in both single and multiple stages as well as various remedial jobs such as squeezing, re-cementing above inadequate fill-up, and plugging back to reestablish drilling-fluid circulation. Designed primarily as a combination low-density lost-circulation slurry, Gilsonit has yielded excellent results in areas of incompetent formations as well as in other types of lost-circulation zones. Field results generally show that fill-up of 80 to 90 percent can be obtained in areas where only 50 to 60 percent fill-up was possible with other types of slurries.

The unique properties of Gilsonit:

  • particle-size distribution
  • impermeability
  • resistance to corrosive fluids
  • low specific gravity
  • low chemical inertness
  • low water requirements cause a slurry containing exceptional bridging properties
  • low slurry weight

Compatibility with other slurry additives and relatively high compressive strength when compared to other slurries of the same weight.
Gilsonit Cementing Grade has a low specific gravity, is non-porous, and impermeable. The addition of Gilsonit to cement slurries reduces the slurry weight without requiring large additions of water. The result is a superior lightweight slurry, having good compressive strength, which is especially suited for cementing weak formations and in control of lost circulation.
As the oil-producing industry has incessant grow, the necessity for a low-density cementing slurry possessing lost-circulation control characteristics has become more and more obvious Introduction of Gilsonit
Especially in primal cementing due to the need to reduce remedial cementing operations and the different types of formations existence encountered
These problem formations may range from either porous or cavernous formations to very weak formations that are unable to support the hydrostatic head that is necessary for drilling and well supplementation. This recent type of formation will often break down or fracture under hydrostatic loading, terminating in partial or complete loss of flow.

Cementing of oil well
A cement produced by Gilsonit is suitable for blocking or plugging an abandoned pipeline or back filling a mine shaft, tunnel or excavations contains Portland cement or a mixture of at least two components selected from Portland cement, A cementations slurry, formulated from the cement mix, may have a density less than or equal to 1500 kg/m3, and exhibits good compressive strength.
In the formulation of the cementing composition of the invention, it is preferable to employ Gilsonit in an amount ranging from approximately one-half to approximately ten times by volume the amount of the cement utilized, depending upon the particular result desired.
The lower range is employed where maximum strength is important; the higher range where the various qualities imparted by the Gilsonit are most important.
Particle size and particle size distribution of the Gilsonit determine the strength and porosity-permeability characteristics of the set cement for any given mix ratio.
Where maximum strength is desirable, a coarse Gilsonit Where lightest weight and lowest porosity-permeability are important and strength is to be sacrificed or is of little importance, an aggregate of minus 50 mesh or finer may be used.

Cement Slurry
Conditions are often encountered in the field requiring various combinations of particle size and particle size distribution. The above examples represent extremes. The mix must, however, always be pump able through the system from the mixing point to the final point of placement of the cement slurry. The coarser the aggregate, the less that may be present in any given slurry without impeding pump ability.
For example, a cement-Gilsonit ration of 1:4, using the coarse aggregate specified above, is difficult to pump and is likely to plug restricted passages in the system, whereas the same mix, using the fine aggregate specified above, will never plug if the water-cement ratio is high enough.
An amount of a petroleum solvent which depends upon the amount of Gilsonit present, may be added to the wet or dry mix for wetting the surface of the Gilsonit particles and causing them to form an intimate bond with casing and earth formations of the bore hole, thus preventing corrosion and minimizing pulling away of the cement from the casing and/or bore hole wall by reason of the shrinkage normal to setting of the cement.
Instead of adding the solvent directly to the mix, it may be pumped through the casing and into the cementing zone in advance of the Gilsonit-cement slurry.

Drilling Fluid Loss Control:
Drilling Fluid Loss Control (FLC) – An important characteristic of Gilsonit is its softening-point temperature. In oil-base muds, it is used as a fluid-loss control agent. Being a hydrocarbon, it is naturally wetted by the oil. In water-base muds, it is used as a shale-stabilizing additive and is difficult to evaluate unless tested at or above its softening point. As a hydrocarbon, the powder must be coupled to water by using a glycol or similar water-wetter.
As an integral component of premium drilling fluid products, Gilsonit actively improves drilling efficiencies while reducing costs and minimizing the HSE impact associated with most drilling fluid additives.
For many years, Gilsonit has been used in the oilfield as an additive in drilling fluids. Gilsonit’s unique properties make it important for many oil field drilling fluid products and the recent boom in oil and gas development has increased demand. Gilsonit, in various grades and formulations, has been used to combat borehole instability problems, provide lubricity, especially in highly deviated holes, and more recently as a bridging agent to combat differential pressure sticking and provide a law invasion coring fluid.
When Gilsonit is added to oil- and water-based drilling fluids, it partially melts or deforms, plugging off micro-fractures in the rock and smearing the inside of the wellbore to make a tight, tough filter cake that prevents fluid loss. The dissolved Gilsonit also increases drilling fluid viscosity, providing lubrication, and together with the sealing off and stabilization of problem rock around the well bore, helps prevent the drill pipe from getting stuck in the well.
It has been well documented that appropriately formulated Gilsonit products can minimize hole collapse in formations containing water-sensitive, sloughing shales and reduce stuck pipe problems by forming a thin wall cake and an inter-matrix filter cake. Gilsonit minimizes the occurrence of stuck pipe and stuck logging tools by thoroughly sealing permeable formations – even in zones with a highly overbalanced pressure differential – and improving filter cake lubricity.
Gilsonit products are currently being widely used in water based (helps minimize hole washout by stabilizing troublesome shales, and seals off highly permeable sands while reducing torque and drag), oil based (The addition of Gilsonit to oil well cements reduce slurry weight without loss of compressive strength and acts as an effective bridging and plugging agent to seal fractures in weak formations while cementing) and synthetic based mud systems worldwide.
Blended Gilsonit has proved to be very effective in all water-based systems. Gilsonit is also used in cementing fluids as a lost-circulation material due to its plugging and binding properties, and as a slurry density reducer in some specialty cementing Fluid
In numerous grades and formulations, Gilsonit has been utilized to fight borehole instability complications, offer lubricity particularly in greatly diverged holes, and lately, as a bridging instrument to contest differential pressure sticking and deliver a less invasive coring fluid. With a unique blend of strength, flexibility, bonding and high-temperature capability, asphaltum adds properties that increase performance in cementing and drilling fluids in a way no other single additive can.
Gilsonit, the recognized industry standard for filtration control, is equally effective at controlling lost circulation and improving wellbore stability, drilling efficiencies, wellbore stability, filter cake development and more.
Gilsonit, in a range of softening points and particle sizes, is a standard ingredient in oil-based drilling muds used in shales and other difficult geological formations. The addition of specially-treated Gilsonit to water-based drilling fluids helps minimize hole washout by stabilizing troublesome shales, and seals off highly permeable sands while reducing torque and drag.
The addition of Gilsonit to oil well cements reduce slurry weight without loss of compressive strength and acts as an effective bridging and plugging agent to seal fractures in weak formations while cementing. Also, Gilsonit use in Mud drilling according to FLC” Filtrate Loss Control” or” Fluid Loss Control” in oil base mud.

Functions of Drilling Fluid loss control (FLC)
Remove cuttings from the well.
Control formation pressure.
Suspend and release cuttings.
Suspend and release cuttings.
Seal permeable formations.
Maintain wellbore stability.
Minimize reservoir damage.
Cool, lubricate, and support the bit and drilling assembly.
Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and bit.
Ensure adequate formation evaluation.
Control corrosion
Facilitate cementing and completion.
Minimize impact on the environment.
Prevent gas hydrate formation.
Gilsonit provides all of these benefits:
Provides wellbore strengthening matrix
Controls fluid loss and seepage
superior shale stabilization
Prevents lost circulation
Strengthens the wellbore to increase wellbore stability
Minimizes differential sticking
Reduces or eliminates lost circulation
Promotes effective filter cake development
Performs in oil- and water-based drilling muds
Performs in HP/HT environments
Minimizes HSE risks
Proven to strengthen the wellbore HP/HT wells, shales and under pressured zones require specialized drilling fluids and wellbore-strengthening techniques. Adding Gilsonit to an OBM, SBM or WBM strengthens the well by:

Gilsonit Emulsion
Gilsonit Emulsion Compositions
Emulsion compositions containing substantial amounts of gilsonit consist essentially of a gilsonit phase consisting of a mixture of between about 33 and about 95% gilsonit, and a petroleum hydrocarbon having a boiling point above about 450° F., and a water phase consisting essentially of water and a small amount of emulsifying agent.

I Claim:
An emulsion composition consisting essentially of
(a) a Gilsonit phase consisting of a mixture of between about 33 and about 95% Gilsonit, and a petroleum hydrocarbon having a boiling point above about 450° F. selected from the group consisting of diesel oil, gas oil, lubricating oil and asphalt, and
(b) a water phase consisting essentially of water and between about 0.05 and about 5%, by weight, of an emulsifying agent and wherein the gilsonit:water phase ratio is between about 1:2 and about 3:1, respectively, by weight.
The composition of claim 1 wherein the amount of gilsonit is between about 25 and about 75% by weight of the total composition.
The composition of claim 1 wherein the emulsifying agent includes bentonite clay.
The composition of claim 1 wherein said emulsifying agent is cationic or anionic.
The composition of claim 1 wherein said gilsonit phase has a melting point of between about 210° and about 250° F.
The composition of claims 1 or 5 wherein said petroleum hydrocarbon comprises asphalt having a penetration between about 40 and about 300 dmm at 77° F.
A composition for producing an insulation board comprising cellulosic particles and an emulsion composition of claim 1 or 5.
An emulsion composition consisting essentially of
(a) a gilsonit phase consisting of a mixture of between about 33 and about 95% gilsonit, and a petroleum hydrocarbon having a boiling point above about 450° F. selected from the group consisting of diesel oil, gas oil, lubricating oil and asphalt, and
(b) a water phase consisting essentially of water and between about 0.05 and about 10%, by weight, bentonite clay.

In the production of insulation board, it is common to incorporate a blown asphalt binder with the wood particulate matter, usually in the form of sawdust, shavings, etc. In such a process, the asphalt is melted, usually at temperatures of above 225° F., and the molten material is solidified by being injected into cold water. The solidifed asphalt is then crushed and added to a slurry of wood or other cellulosic particles. Obviously substantial energy is required to heat the asphalt and maintain it in the molten state during such a procedure. It is to the elimination of using a molten asphalt and the heating and energy uses that the present invention is directed.

In the present invention there are proposed gilsonit emulsion compositions, particularly useful in the production of insulation board, which emulsions can be conveniently added to a slurry of the wood fiber materials and homogeneously dispersed or mixed therewith, without the necessity of forming and maintaining a melt of asphalt. In the preferred embodiment, an emulsion composition consists of a gilsonit phase having up to 95%, by weight, gilsonit, and a petroleum hydrocarbon having a boiling point above about 450° F., together with a water phase consisting essentially of water and a small amount of emulsifying agent.

Compositions of this invention, for some uses, comprise an emulsion consisting essentially of gilsonit, water and a small amount of emulsifying agent, without other materials. The amount of gilsonit present is between about 25 and about 75% by weight of the total emulsion composition. The emulsifying agent may be a cationic, anionic, and/or nonionic emulsifier. Suitable cationic emulsifiers are preferably selected from the group consisting of quaternary ammonium halides, amine acetate salts and alkyl-substituted imidazolines. The specific emulsifiers within this group, and a number of other examples of compounds, as well as commercially available compositions, are described in my U.S. Pat. No. 4,073,659, the full description thereof being incorporated herein by reference. However, other cationic emulsifiers known to those skilled in the art may be used.

Where it is desirable to use anionic emulsifiers, such materials include petroleum sulfonates, specifically alkaryl sulfonates such as alkali metal salts of methylnaphthalene sulfonate, p-dodecylbenzene sulfonate, mixtures of petroleum sulfonates, and the like, or sulfates such as n-hexadecyl sulfate, and the like. Suitable soap-type emulsifying agents include alkali metal sales of higher fatty acids, especially those having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule such as lauric, myristic, palmitic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic acids and the like, and mixtures of acids available from animal or vegetable oils, well known to those skilled in the art. Nonionic emulsifying compositions include materials having long chains of polyoxethylene or polyoxypropylene in fatty acid, alcohol, amide or amine molecule. More specific nonionics are disclosed in my copending application Ser. No. 726,946, filed Sept. 27, 1976, and are incorporated herein by reference. For certain uses, mixtures of these above noted types of synthetic detergents or soaps may be used.
The amount of emulsifier used will normally be between about 0.05 and about 5%, of the total composition weight. Usually amounts of 0.5 and about 2% by weight will be suitable. It may also be desirable to substitute or incorporate bentonite clay in the emulsion composition, useful as an emulsifying additive or stabilizer for the emulsion composition. Normally the use of bentonite as a portion of the emulsifier amount as described herein will suffice. However, when used alone, the bentonite may be used in greater amounts, for example, up to 10% by weight, such as between about 3% and about 8% by weight of the emulsion.
Although for some compositions only the emulsion of gilsonit may be useful, it is preferred that the oil of the composition contain a petroleum hydrocarbon having a boiling point above about 450° F. By such a limitation, it is intended to exclude the lower boiling petroleum hydrocarbons such as kerosene, naphtha, gasoline, etc. Suitable hydrocarbons include diesel fuel, gas oil, lubricating oils, and the like. Particularly desirable and most preferred are penetration grade asphalts, having a penetration of between about 40 and about 300 dmm at 77° F. (25° C.), 100 g/sec. Such penetrations are based on well-known procedures according to ASTM D-5 or ASHO T-49. The amount of petroleum hydrocarbon, and particularly asphalt, which may be combined with gilsonit to produce the gilsonit phase may be varied whereby the gilsonit is present in amounts of between about 33 and about 95% by weight of that phase. It is particularly advantageous to incorporate enough hydrocarbon with the gilsonit to achieve a gilsonit phase melting or softening temperature of less than about 250° F., and preferably between about 210° and about 250° F.
The petroleum hydrocarbon and gilsonit may be blended to produce the gilsonit phase by any convenient method. One such process includes that disclosed in my aforesaid U.S. Pat. No. 4,073,659, in which gilsonit is melted, and the asphalt is heated, and the two materials are then blended at the gilsonit melting point temperature. Such a process description is incorporated herein by reference. Alternatively, the gilsonit is crushed or otherwise treated to achieve a particle size range which is easily physically mixed with the hydrocarbon by stirring or other similar agitation, without the use of heat to melt the gilsonit. It is this gilsonit phase that is then used to form the emulsion. The preferred gilsonit used herein is a “selects” grade, having a nominal melting or softening point above 300° F. and often about 310°-320° F. Such a gilsonit is distinguished from a “brilliant black” grade having a softening point above about 385° F.
The emulsion is prepared by blending the gilsonit phase with the water phase in which has been incorporated the emulsifying agent. The materials are then thoroughly mixed, with or without heating, although heating somewhat prior to mixing and blending in order to further assist emulsion preparation is often desirable. For example, the gilsonit phase may be heated to the point so that it is somewhat workable physically or is plastic, and at the same time the emulsifying containing water phase may also be heated. The two phases are then simply blended until the desired homogenity is obtained. The amount of water used in the total composition may vary widely, but it normally is suitable to have a gilsonit-water phase ratio between about 1:2 and about 3:1, respectively, by weight.

The following composition illustrates an emulsion prepared according to the invention.
Gilsonit ore is mixed with asphalt having a penetration of 45 and a melting point of 120° F. The relative proportions of the two materials were 45% asphalt and 55% gilsonit, blended to achieve a gilsonit phase having a melting point of about 235° F. This phase composition was blended with water containing cationic emulsifier Armack E-5 (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) having a concentration of about 1% by weight of the total composition. The gilsonit: water phase ratio was about 1:1.
Compositions of the scope of the present invention, although particularly useful in the process for producing insulation board, as previously described, have other uses, such as in preparing printing inks. Other uses for such compositions within the purview of the invention may be evident to those skilled in the art.

Use of wax in oil-based drilling fluid:
In accordance with the invention, improved drilling fluid compositions and methods of preparing the drilling fluid compositions are described. The compositions in accordance with the invention have rheological properties that enable their use as effective drilling fluid compositions.
In the context of this description, the compositions and methods described all relate to oil-based drilling solutions that, as described below, include a hydrocarbon continuous phase, a water dispersed phase, an organophilic clay and an emulsifier. The amount of hydrocarbon phase and water phase in a given emulsion may be varied from as low as 50:50 (hydrocarbon:water (v/v)) to as high as 99:1. At the lower end of this range, emulsion stability is substantially lower and the ability to alter viscosity requires that large amounts of organophilic clay be added to the mixture. Similarly, at the upper end, the ability to control viscosity within the emulsion is more difficult. As a result, an approximate hydrocarbon:water ratio of 80:20 to 90:10 (v/v) is a practical ratio that is commonly used for drilling solutions.
In this description, a representative drilling solution having a hydrocarbon:water ratio of 90:10 (v/v) was used as a standard to demonstrate the effect of emulsifiers on the organophilic clay performance, viscosity and emulsion stability. In addition, a relatively narrow range of organophilic clay ratios relative to the total mass of solution was utilized. Each of these amounts was selected as a practical amount to demonstrate the effect of altering the amount of organophilic clay and/or emulsifier relative to the other components. While experiments were not performed across the full range of ratios where such compositions could be made, it would be understood by one skilled in the art that in the event that one parameter was changed that adjustment of another parameter to compensate for the change in other parameters would be made. Thus, in the context of this description, it is understood that the change in one parameter may require that at least one other parameter be changed in order to optimize the performance of the composition. For example, if the stated objective in creating a composition for a given hydrocarbon:water ratio is to minimize the usage of organophilic clay in that composition, the worker skilled in the art would understand that adjustment of both the amount of organophilic clay and emulsifier in the composition may be required to obtain a composition realizing the stated objective and that such an optimization process, while not readily predictable, is understood by those skilled in the art.
a) Base Solution
A base drilling fluid solution was created for testing whereby individual constituents of the formulation could be altered to examine the effect on drilling fluid properties. The base drilling fluid solution was a miscible mix of a hydrocarbon, water, organophilic clay and emulsifier. The general formulation of the base drilling solution is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 – Base Drilling Solution
*unless otherwise noted
b) Preparation
The oil, water, calcium chloride and organophilic clay were mixed at high speed to create a highly dispersed slurry. Mixing was continued until the slurry temperature reached 700C. Emulsifiers were added to individual samples of each solution and again mixed at high speed for 3 minutes. Lime (CaO) was then added and blended for 2 minutes at high speed. The calcium chloride was added in accordance with standard drilling fluid preparation procedures as an additive to provide secondary fluid stabilization as is known to those skilled in the art. Prior to testing, the samples were subsequently heat aged in hot rolling cells for 18 – 24 hours to simulate downhole conditions.
c) Fluid Property Measurements
Viscosity measurements were made using a Fann Variable Speed concentric cylinder viscometer and is the dial reading on the viscometer at the indicated rpm. Data points were collected at 600, 300, 200, 100, 6, and 3 RPM points.
Emulsion stability (ES) was measured using an OFI emulsion stability meter. Each measurement was performed by inserting the ES probe into the solution at 1200F [48.90C]. The ES meter automatically applies an increasing voltage (from 0 volts) across an electrode gap in the probe. Maximum voltage that the solution will sustain across the gap before conducting current is displayed as the ES voltage.
HT-HP (high temperature-high pressure) volume was measured in an HT-HP pressure cell (500 psi and 1200C) over 30 minutes. The HT-HP measurement provides a relative measurement of the permeability of a solution passing through a standard filter and provides a qualitative determination of the ability of the solution to seal a well bore and formation.
Plastic viscosity (PV) (mPa.s) was measured by a Bingham viscosity rotational viscometer. Plastic viscosity is a function of the shear stress exerted to maintain constant flow in a fluid. With drilling fluids, the plastic viscosity of the fluid provides a qualitative indication of the flow characteristics of the fluid when it is moving rapidly. In particular, plastic viscosity provides an indication of the ability of the fluid to disperse solids within the solution. Generally, a lower plastic viscosity (i.e. a lower slope in a shear vs. shear-stress plot) is preferred to optimize the hole cleaning parameters for a drilling fluid. That is, the lower the PV relative to its YP produces a greater shear thinning fluid and as a result improves hole cleaning while at the same time reducing bit viscosities and increasing rate of penetration (ROP).
Yield point (YP) is the y axis intercept of the plastic viscosity plot (shear-rate (x-axis) versus shear-stress (y-axis) plot) and describes the flow characteristics of a drilling solution when it is moving very slowly or at rest. The yield point provides a qualitative measurement of the ability of a mud to lift cuttings out of the annulus. A high YP implies a non-Newtonian fluid and a fluid that carries drill cuttings better than a fluid of similar density but lower YP.
Filter cake is the measurement of the thickness of the filter residue in an HT-HP filter press. Generally, it is preferred that the drilling fluid causes the formation of a thinner filter cake.

Effect of Montan Wax on Fluid Parameters
A base fluid was prepared as above and increasing amounts of Montan wax added as primary emulsifier as shown in Table 2. Montan wax is a fossilized plant wax comprising non-glyceride long-chain (C24-C30) carboxylic acid esters (62-68 weight %), free long- chain organic acids (22-26%), long-chain alcohols, ketones and hydrocarbons (7-15%) and resins. It has a melting point of approximately 82-95 0C.
Table 2 – Effect of Montan Wax as Primary Emulsifier
The results shown in Table 2 indicate that with increasing Montan wax:
the HT-HP volume is reduced;
emulsion stability increased;
yield point dropped; and, • the filter cake thickness decreased.
Thus, Montan wax is effective as a primary emulsifier while maintaining good fluid properties, particularly in reducing filter cake.

Effect of Different Waxes on Fluid Parameters
A base fluid was prepared with Drillsol™ (Enerchem) as the primary phase. Drillsol is a middle distillate hydrocarbon drilling fluid. Different waxes were added to the base fluid as primary emulsifier in the amounts as shown in Tables 3 and 4. The waxes included plant, animal and mineral derived waxes including Beeswax, Candelilla, Carnauba, Ceresine, Montan, Shellac, and Crude Canola. In the past crude Canola has been successfully as an Emulsifier, HT-HP fluid loss control agent, and as a Rheology Modifier. As such, its use in this work was to provide a benchmark against which the waxes could be compared. The formulations shown in Table 3 included additional drilling fluid additives namely water, calcium chloride and lime. Table 4 shows fluid formulations as in Table 3 but without water, calcium chloride and lime.

Table 3 – Effect of Different Waxes as Primary Emulsifier within an Oil-based Drilling Fluid
Table 4 – Effect of Different Waxes on Oil/Wax Mixture

The results shown in Tables 3 and 4 indicate that each wax provided acceptable fluid properties; as compared to either the baseline fluid or to Canola Oil, for use as an oil- based drilling fluid. In particular, each of Beeswax, Candelilla, Carnauba, Ceresine, Montan, Shellac and Crude Canola showed acceptable viscosity, emulsion stability, and plastic viscosity. In the case of ceresine and crude canola, yield point, HT-HP filtrate and filter cake values were higher than normally accepted values. D. Effect of Waxes and Coal Powders as Seepage Control Agents
In addition, compositions including wax and various low density powders and blends were investigated for their effectiveness as seepage control agents.
a) Experimental
The effectiveness of various additives as seepage control agents was measured in an API press. Mixtures were prepared and 350 ml samples of each mixture were pushed through a porous media (API Filter Paper) over a maximum 30 minute time period. The volume of filtrate passing through the porous media was measured together with the time taken. If the full volume of the mixture did not pass through the mixture, a maximum 30 minute time period was recorded. The volume of the filtrate was also recorded. A lower filtrate volume (less than 50 ml) indicated that the mixture was effective in sealing the porous media. A high filtrate volume and time period less than 30 minutes indicated that the mixture was not effective as a seepage control agent.
The additives were compared to a similar 350 ml solution containing calcium carbonate as a seepage control agent. The full volume of the calcium carbonate solution passed through the porous media in approximately 10 seconds.
The following waxes and powders were investigated as shown in Table 5:
Table 5 – Waxes/Powders
b) Gilsonit
Gilsonit is a class of solid bitumens known as asphaltites. The properties of gilsonit include a high asphaltene content, a high solubility in organic solvents, a high molecular weight and a high nitrogen content.
Gilsonit is available in different grades generally categorized by softening point. The softening point is used as an approximate guide to its melt viscosity and behaviour in solution. The chemical differences are generally small between gilsonit grades, with only subtle variations in average molecular weight and asphaltene/resin-oil ratios. Gilsonit includes a significant aromatic fraction and most of the aromatics exist in stable, conjugated systems, including porphyrin-like structures. The remainder of the product consists of long, paraffinic chains.
The particle sizes of the fine and coarse gilsonit are shown in Figure 6A.
Table 6B shows the typical component analysis (wt %) for different gilsonites and the corresponding softening points.
Table 6A – Gilsonit Particle Size Distribution
Table 6B – Component Analysis and Softening Points of Gilsonites
Typical Component Analysis (wt %)
Asphaltenes 57 66 71 76
37 30 27 21 (Maltenes)
Oils 6 4 2 3
Total 100 100 100 100
Softening Point,
290 320 350 375 0F
A notable feature of gilsonit is its high nitrogen content (3.3 wt%, typical), which is present mainly as pyrrole, pyridine, and amide functional groups. Phenolic and carbonyl groups are also present. The low oxygen content relative to nitrogen suggests that much of the nitrogen has basic functionality and likely accounts for the surface wetting properties and resistance to free radical oxidation. The average molecular weight of Gilsonit is about 3000. This is high relative to other asphalt products and to most synthetic resins and likely contributes to gilsonit’s “semi-polymeric” behaviour when used as a modifying resin in polymeric and elastomeric systems. There is some reactive potential in gilsonit and crosslinking and addition type reactions have been observed.
c) Leonardites
Leonardites (also referred to as humates and lignites) include mined lignin, brown coal, and slack and are an important constituent to the oil well, drilling industry. Leonardites, as known to those skilled in the art and within this description refer to the general class of compounds. Lignite is technically known as a low rank coal between peat and sub- bituminous and is given to products having a high content of humic acid. The lignite used in the following tests was from the Dakota Deposit.
With reference to Tables 7a-7f, the effectiveness of various blends of oil, waxes and powders as seepage control agents was compared. Table 7a shows Runs 1-4 that included various blends of Montan wax, coarse or fine gilsonit, and lignite.
The results shown in Table 7a (Runs 1 and 2) compare the effectiveness of coarse and fine gilsonit as a seepage control agent in a blend including Montan wax, coarse or fine gilsonit, and lignite. The results of runs 1 and 2 show that there was no significant difference using coarse or fine gilsonit.
Runs 3 and 4 compare the effectiveness of coarse and fine gilsonit as a seepage control agent in blends including an increased amount of Montan wax and coarse and fine gilsonit in the absence of lignite. The results indicate that both coarse and fine gilsonit are very effective as a seepage control agent when blended with Montan wax. The results show that coarse gilsonit was significantly better.
Table 7b – Seepage Control Blends and Results
The results shown in Table 7b (Runs 5-10) compare the effectiveness of various waxes blended with coarse gilsonit and black earth super fine as a seepage control agent. The results indicate that those blends including Beeswax and Montan wax in a blend including coarse gilsonit and black earth super fine are effective as a seepage control agent. Blends with Carnauba, Ceresine and Candellila were not effective.
Table 7c – Seepage Control Blends and Results
The results shown in Table 7c (Runs 11-16) compare the effectiveness of blends with Montan wax together with various combinations with coarse and fine gilsonit and/or coal dusts. The results indicate that blends including coarse gilsonit and C07-392 cyclone dust, C07-393 coal dust or lignite were the most effective blends.
Table 7d – Seepage Control Blends and Results
The results shown in Table 7d (Runs 17-19) compare the effectiveness of blends of shellac together with coarse Gilsonit and various coal powders. The results indicate that blends incorporating shellac were not effective as seepage control agents.
Table 7e – Seepage Control Blends and Results
The results shown in Table 7e (runs 20-24) compared the effectiveness of blending various coal powders with Distillate 822 and no additional additives. The results show that coal powders in the absence of other additives are not effective as a seepage control agent.
Table 7f – Seepage Control Blends and Results
The results shown in Table 7f (runs 25-28) compared the effectiveness of blends including Montan wax, coarse, fine or no gilsonit and/or lignite powder or C07-393 DC- 90 coal dust. The results show that coarse or fine gilsonit together with lignite or coal dust were not effective as a seepage control agent. The results show that blends including Montan wax with lignite or coal dust were also not effective as seepage control agents. E. Results
In summary, the results show that:
the combination of Montan wax and coarse or fine gilsonit (Runs 3 and 4) provide good SC;
If lignite is added, SC decreases (Runs 1 and 2);
Both Beeswax and Montan wax combined with black earth super-fine and coarse gilsonit provide good SC (Runs 5 and 9); and,
Montan wax combined with coarse gilsonit and coal powders provide good SC (Runs 12-16).
The results show that Montan wax and Beeswax are effective seepage control agents when combined with coarse or fine gilsonit and/or various coal powders. Unexpectedly, blends including coarse gilsonit provided superior SC compared to fine gilsonit. It is believed that the compositions are effective as seepage control agents as a result of the interactions between the long-chain waxes, the plastically deformable gilsonites and insoluble coal powders. The larger gilsonit particles may provide better SC as the plastic deformation and swelling of the larger particles in the hydrocarbon phase is higher thus providing a firmer or solid matrix of particles against which insoluble coal particles can interact with. The long chain wax particles may also provide a web into which the coal particles may seat. This is contrasted with calcium carbonate that does not swell or plastically deform in the hydrocarbon phase.
A comparison of the properties of a 50/50 Montan wax/gilsonit mixture, lignite, calcium carbonate and paraffin wax are shown in Table 7.
Table 7 – Property Comparison
Importantly, the compositions in accordance with the invention enable the operator to ameliorate the cost of seepage control agents by incorporating into drilling solutions less expensive additives that are effective in seepage control. Generally, both gilsonit and Montan wax are “medium” cost products. By introducing cheaper cost coal powders, the amounts of gilsonit and Montan wax can be reduced thus lowering the overall cost of the drilling fluid while still providing an effective seepage control product.
Still further, by eliminating high density calcium carbonate, the overall density of the drilling fluid is substantially reduced thus reducing the seepage control losses due to hydrostatic pressure. By using lower density SC agents in small concentrations in base oils that have ASG’s of 760 kg/m3 to 870 kg/m3 the increase in fluid density is marginal when compared to calcium carbonate. Also these materials present advantages by their lighter density as they will remain suspended when subjected to solids separation equipment (such as centrifuges and hydrocyclones) that are used to remove high density materials drilled solids.
Field Results
A blend of Montan wax, lignite and coarse gilsonit was field tested. Prior to introduction of the mixture, the well was observing fluid losses at approximately 2.5 m3 / hr. After the addition of the blend, fluid losses were 0.6 m3/hr. Over the course of the drilling program, it was estimated that the operator saved $200,000 in drilling fluid costs.
Although the present invention has been described and illustrated with respect to preferred embodiments and preferred uses thereof, it is not to be so limited since modifications and changes can be made therein which are within the full, intended scope of the invention.

Oil Based Mud
Oil based muds & Synthetic-Based muds:
Through this memo, we expect:
-To present the materials oil-based muds (OBMs) or synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are made of (most of the time,such muds are water-in-oil, invert, emulsions),
-To give information and field habits to effectively solve formulating problems.
Same of these information are also included in an XL-based program (currently under development) to design drilling fluids.
1-Applications Of OBMs.
OBM offers many advantages over water muds. Cost and environmental disposals can be factors in not selecting this type of mud system.
2-OBMs Basic Chemistry.
Invert emulsions (the most common OBMs) are formulated to contain moderate to high concentrations of water (up to 60% in extreme conditions).
Special emulsifiers are added to emulsify the water as the internal phase and prevent the water from breaking out and coalescing into larger droplets.
These water droplets, if not tightly emulsified, can water-wet the already oil-wet solids and dramatically affect the emulsion stability.
The balanced activity concept is shortly described in annex 1. Shale swelling is a required notion to expain the need of this concept: it is briefly explained in annex 2.
BHT=bottom Hole Temperature
HT=High Temperature
Oil muds require special products to ensure that the emulsion is extremely stable and can withstand conditions of HT and contaminants. Every single product must be dispersible in the external oil phase.
3-Synthetic-Based Fluids for Oil Muds Replacement.
The first use of oil as a drilling fluid is not known. It is likely, however, that someone thought of using produced crude to drill the well, assuming that would eliminate wellbore damage that can occur with water contact.
Crude oils were difficult to use as drilling fluids, so refined oils and processed asphalts replaced them. A number of mud products came into, being to control the normal mud properties of viscosity and fluid loss and to emulsify water.

Gilsonit Pedia:
Gilsonit is a naturally occurring combustible material consisting primarily of the element of Hydrogen and carbon. It also contains low percentages of solid, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons and/or other materials, such as compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphor. Gilsonit is usually classified into subgroups known as bituminous material. The physical, chemical, and other properties of Gilsonit vary considerably from sample to sample.
Origins of Gilsonit:
Gilsonit is often referred to as a hard hydrocanboe and natural rock asphalt. That name comes from the way in which Gilsonit was originally formed. When animals die, they normally decay and are converted to carbon dioxide, water, and other products that disappear into the environment. Other than a few bones, little remains of the dead organism.
At some period’s earth history, however, conditions existed that made other forms of decay possible. The bodies of dead animals underwent only partial decay.
Words to Know:
Anthracite: Hard coal; a form of coal with high heat content and a high concentration of pure carbon. Gilsonit: Softening point between 160~220 centigrade a form of coal with less heat content and pure Hydrocarbon carbon content than anthracite, but more than lignite. Coke: A synthetic fuel formed by the heating of soft coal in the absence of air. Lignite: Brown coal; a form of coal with less heat content and pure carbon content than either anthracite or bituminous coal.
Liquefaction: Any process by which solid coal is converted to a liquid fuel. Oxide: An inorganic compound whose only negative part is the element oxygen. Peat: A primitive form of coal with less heat content and pure carbon content than any form of coal. Strip mining: A method for removing coal from seams located near Earth’s surface. To imagine how such changes may have occurred, consider the following possibility. An animal dies in a swampy area and is quickly covered with water, silt, sand, and other sediments. These materials prevent the plant debris from reacting with oxygen in the air and decomposing to carbon dioxide and water— a process that would occur under normal circumstances.
Instead, anaerobic bacteria attack the animal debris and convert it to simpler forms: primarily pure hydrocarbon carbon and simple compounds of carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons). The initial stage of the decay of a dead animal is a soft. In some parts of the world, it is still collected from boggy areas and used as a fuel. It is not a good fuel, however, as it burns poorly and produces a great deal of smoke. If Gilsonit is allowed to remain in the ground for long periods of time, it eventually becomes compacted. Layers of sediment, known as over-burden, collect above it.
The additional pressure and heat of the overburden gradually converts Gilsonit into another form of bituminous known as natural asphalt. Continued compaction by overburden then converts bodies into bituminous (or soft) natural asphalt and finally after sometimes to hard Gilsonit.
Composition of Gilsonit:
Gilsonit is classified according to its purity and softening point. For example, anthracite contains the highest proportion of pure carbon (about 86 to 98 percent) and has the highest heat value (13,500 to 15,600 Btu/lb; British thermal units per pound) of all forms of coal. Bituminous coal generally has lower concentrations of pure carbon (from 46 to 86 percent) and lower heat values (8,300 to 15,600 Btu/lb) but it is combination hydro carbon and high nitrogen. Bituminous rock asphalt are often subdivided on the basis of their heat value, being classified as low, medium, and high volatile bituminous and subbituminous. Lignite, the poorest of the true coals in terms of heat value (5,500 to 8,300 Btu/lb), generally contains about 46 to 60 percent pure carbon.
All forms of coal also contain other elements present in living organisms, such as sulfur and nitrogen, that are very low in absolute numbers but that have important environmental consequences when coals are used as fuels.
Properties and reactions of Gilsonit:
By far the most important property of Gilsonit is softening point and solubility. When the hydrocarbons heat up in natural asphalt completely, only two products are formed, ash and smoke. During this chemical reaction, a relatively large amount of natural gas and carbon dioxide is released. For this reason, Gilsonit has long been used by humans as a source of energy for heating homes and other buildings, running ships and trains, and in many industrial processes.
Coal mining:
Gilsonit is extracted from Earth using one of two major methods: sub-surface or surface (strip) mining. Subsurface mining is used when seams of coal are located at significant depths below Earth’s surface. The first step in subsurface mining is vertical tunnels into the earth until the Gilsonit seam is reached. Horizontal tunnels are then constructed off the vertical tunnel. In many cases, the preferred way of mining Gilsonit by this method is called room-and-pillar mining. In room-and-pillar mining, vertical columns of Gilsonit (the pillars) are left in place as the natural asphalt around them is removed. The pillars hold up the ceiling of the seam, preventing it from collapsing on miners working around them. After the mine has been abandoned, however, those pillars may collapse, bringing down the ceiling of the seam and causing the collapse of land above the old mine.
Surface mining can be used when a Gilsonit seam is close enough to Earth’s surface to allow the overburden to be removed easily and inexpensively. In such cases, the first step is to strip off all of the overburden in order to reach the coal itself. The coal is then scraped out by huge power shovels, some capable of removing up to 100 cubic meters at a time. Strip mining is a far safer form of Gilsonit mining for natural bitumen workers, but it presents a number of environmental problems. In most instances, an area that has been strip-mined is terribly scarred. Restoring the area to its original state can be a long and expensive procedure. In addition, any water that comes in contact with the exposed Gilsonit or overburden may become polluted and require treatment.
Gilsonit is regarded as a nonrenewable resource, meaning it is not replaced easily or readily. Once a nonrenewable resource has been used up, it is gone for a very long time into the future, if not forever. Gilsonit fits that description, since it was formed many millions of years ago but is not being formed in significant amounts any longer. Therefore, the amount of Gilsonit that now exists below Earth’s surface is, for all practical purposes, all the natural asphalt available for the foreseeable future. When this supply of Gilsonit is used up, humans will find it necessary to find some other substitute to meet their demands.

History – Gilsonit is the mineral that was discovered in the early 1860’s, but in the mid-1880’s Samuel H. Gilson began to promote it as a waterproof coating for wooden pilings, as an insulation for wire cable, and as a unique varnish. Gilson’s advancement of the ore was so successful that, in 1888, for the first time Samuel Gilson and a partner organized the first company to mine and market Gilsonit on a commercial scale. in the beginning, Gilsonit was sold as “Selects” and “Fines”. The “Selects” was the law softening point ore with conchoidal fracture.
Higher softening point ore with a pencillated structure was known as “Fines”. Select was more expensive than finest because of its better purity, good solubility, and usefulness in the paint, stain, and varnish industries. Over time and technology advance have changed this classification system. Processing of Gilsonit now is purer, most of the inert pollutants and newer has been removed, so today Gilsonit is more powerful, solvents make the higher softening point grades that makes users catching more attention to this mineral. Today, Gilsonit is graded by softening point (a rough measure of solubility) and particle size. All grades carry a degree of quality far superior to those first small amounts of crude Gilsonit marketed in the 1880’s.

Gilsonit powder solubility:
GILSONIT POWDER SOLUBILITY – Gilsonit powder is willingly soluble without heating in aromatic solvents like Benzene, Toluene, Xylene and in most chlorinated solvents. It is also soluble without heating in aliphatic and low aromatic solvents (VM&P and other Naphtha, Ink Oils and Mineral Spirits), but mixing time is longer. Without heating, the pulverized grade is recommended.
In paint usages, Gilsonit is generally exerted in combination with bitumen (asphalt). Usually, if Gilsonit is used alone, the ultimate paint will be so hard and brittle after drying. In the other had if normal straight-run bitumen is used alone, the final paint is too soft and tacky. So, a mixture of Gilsonit and bitumen is the best to get the sought hardness (penetration) and drying time of the finished paint. In addition to imparting hardness to the paint
Gilsonit is also increasing the paint’s:
chemical resistance
water resistance

For hardness, Gilsonit has a zero penetration (at 25°C; 100 gm. 5 sec.) compared to the 60-70 pen, 80-100 pen or softer bitumen commonly available from petroleum companies or asphalt manufacturers.

Gilsonit Brands:
It is a natural occurring Gilsonit used for HTHP filtration control in invert oil / synthetic base systems at temperatures above 400 F (205 C).
It is compatible to all invert oil / synthetic base systems and can be used both in the initial formulation or for treatment while drilling.
Initial treatment in the range of 2 – 10 lb./bbl. (5.71 – 28.53 kg/m3) is recommended, although higher concentrations may be necessary in extreme cases.
Pilot testing should be conducted to determine actual concentration needed in each case. If CONFI-TROL HT is to be added to a newly mixed mud prior to displacement, the addition should be made after all other components have been mixed thoroughly.

Gilsonit Asphasol shale inhibitor is a partially water-soluble, sulfonated organic material developed for use in most water-base drilling fluids.Gilsonit Asphasol shale inhibitor contains no surfactants as do most water-dispersible products used in shale-control applications.
Typical Physical Properties
Physical appearance: Black, free-flowing powder
ph (2% solution): 7.5 – 9.5
Solubility in water: Minimum 50% by weight
Gilsonit Asphasol shale inhibitor can be used in most water-base drilling fluids. Gilsonit Asphasol shale inhibitor is a free-flowing powder and can be added directly to the mud system through the mixing hopper. Unlike some shale control additives, it is not necessary to pre-mix the Gilsonit Asphasol inhibitor with oil and it contains no surfactants.
Normal concentrations of Gilsonit Asphasol shale inhibitor range from 2 to 10 lb/bbl
(5.7 to 28.5 kg/m3) for most applications.
Advantages of Gilsonit Asphasol
Contains no surfactants
Premixing is not required
Inhibits swelling and water-wetting of shales
Reduces High-Temperature, High-Pressure (HTHP) fluid loss
Reduces torque and drag
Improves wall cake quality

Gilsonit Countries:
Gilsonit mines operates as an industrial minerals company over the world and is the world’s primary miner and processor of uintaite, a variety of asphaltite, a specialty hydrocarbon which many countries markets to industrial customers under its registered trademark name Gilsonit.
ilsonite is a glossy, black, solid naturally occurring hydrocarbon similar in appearance to hard asphalt and is believed to be found in commercial quantities in Iran USA Colombia China Turkey Basin Colombia Argentina and Albania.
Because of its unique chemical and physical properties, Gilsonit has been used in more than 160 products. The countries sell its products to customers in four primary markets:
(i) oil and gas
(ii) inks and paints
(iii) foundry and
(iv) asphalt
Gilsonit countries mining the Gilsonit more than 2 million metric tons annually.

Gilsonit Properties:
Gilsonit Molecular Structure:
Gilsonit Molecular Structure – To know specific features of Gilsonit a diversity of sophisticated analytical tests has been run, to characterize its unique properties.
The test methods include vacuum:
Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR)
Vapor pressure osmometry (VPO)
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
Rapid capillary gas chromatography (RCAP)
And several fractionation techniques.
H/C ratios and NMR analysis, portend the attendance of a meaningful aromatic fraction. Most of the aromatics be in stable, inflected systems, probably porphyrin-like structures that relate to the geologic source of the product. The remainder of the product consists of long, paraffinic chains
The average molecular weight of Gilsonit is about 3000. This is very high relative to other asphalt products and to most synthetic resins. This may relate to Gilsonit “semi-polymeric” behavior when used as a modifying resin in polymeric and elastomeric systems. There is some reactive potential in Gilsonit. Crosslinking and addition type reactions have been observed. Gilsonit is known to react with formaldehyde compounds under certain conditions. Its unique chemical and physical properties make Gilsonit a high-performance, multipurpose additive that is also a cost-effective solution.

Physical Properties:
Gilsonit natural asphalt (asphaltite) additive is a mineral bitumen hydrocarbon in granular form. Its particle size varies between 4- and 200-mesh. Pulverized Gilsonit is commonly used to control lost circulation.
It is effective at bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) between 60° and 230°F (16° and 110°C). Typical additive concentrations range from 5- to 50-lb/sk of cement mud.
The low specific gravity of Gilsonit powder helps improve its ability to control lost circulation. However, this feature can also cause the additive to separate to the top of thin slurries and slurries containing dispersants. Adding 2% or more bentonite to the slurry will help prevent separation.
Gilsonit additive can provide the following benefits:
When perforated, it is shatter-resistant.
It does not significantly affect the setting time of cement.
Gilsonit additive can provide higher strength than heavier additives with high water requirements.

Chemical Specification:
Gilsonit or natural asphalt is available to deliver in various grades and categorized by softening point. Softening point is working as an approximate guide to melt viscosity in solution.
The chemical specifications are different between Gilsonit grades, with only solubility and asphaltene /resin-oil ratios.
ASTM-D3174 2~10 ASH CONTENT, WT% 1
ASTM-D3289 1.01~1.06 SPECIFIC GRAVITY @25 C 6
——————- Black COLOR IS MASS 8
ASTM-D5291 74 CARBOB, WT% 1
ASTM-D5291 9.1 HYDROGEN, WT% 2
ASTM-D5291 1.67 NITROGEN, WT% 3
ASTM-D5291 3.1 OXYGEN, WT% 4

Gilsonit Chemical Composition
The environmental granular asphalt which sizes are of 0.1/40MM This recycled granular asphalt is mostly used for new roads layers and finished lines our products are backed by the European union certificates with an SGS report on each shipment.
Primary use
This type of granulate is used for stabilizing roads (second layers) and also for the first layer, mixed with cement (2%). Bitumen emulsion (2%) or any other binding.
As a result, the roads can be constructed at less cost and these roads are less harmful to the environment and much more durable.
Product details asphalt granular
We sell asphalt granular 0.1/40 also known as bitumen asphalt. Our products has oeso international disposal code; GG 160 and eural code.170302
Chemical composition (pak)50 benzo (A)pyreen (confirmed by evoa) this asphalt granular is a green-list disposal composition product.

Gilsonit General Solubility
Gilsonit products is readily soluble without heating in aromatic solvents (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) and in most chlorinated solvents.
It also soluble without heating in Aliphatic and low aromatic solvents (VM&P and other Naphtha, Ink Oils and Mineral Spirits), but Mixing time is longer. Without heating, the pulverized grade is recommended. Gilsonit has Limited solubility in most alcohols and ketones.

Gilsonit Friendly to Water
Water-based Gilsonit is natural bitumen environmentally safe and specially formulated to protect hole shale water base drilling.
The drilling fluid serves a number of functions including taking heat away from the drill bit and facilitating the return of drill cuttings to the surface. There are three main types of drilling mud, including Gilsonit muds.
The present invention deals with the consequences of using water-based drilling Gilsonit muds. When the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud in the wellbore exceeds the inwardly acting pressure of the surrounding formation, the drilling mud is forced into the surrounding formation through the walls of the wellbore.
In many applications the drilling Gilsonit mud is intended to be deposited in and/or on the wellbore wall, forming so called “filter cake” which, amongst other things, helps to limit the invasion of formation fluids into the wellbore; reduces the risk of the wellbore collapsing during drilling; and resists the escape of drilling fluids into the formation.

Gilsonit Friendly to Water
Water-based Gilsonit is natural bitumen environmentally safe and specially formulated to protect hole shale water base drilling.
The drilling fluid serves a number of functions including taking heat away from the drill bit and facilitating the return of drill cuttings to the surface. There are three main types of drilling mud, including Gilsonit muds.
The present invention deals with the consequences of using water-based drilling Gilsonit muds. When the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud in the wellbore exceeds the inwardly acting pressure of the surrounding formation, the drilling mud is forced into the surrounding formation through the walls of the wellbore.
In many applications the drilling Gilsonit mud is intended to be deposited in and/or on the wellbore wall, forming so called “filter cake” which, amongst other things, helps to limit the invasion of formation fluids into the wellbore; reduces the risk of the wellbore collapsing during drilling; and resists the escape of drilling fluids into the formation.

How remove ashes from gilsonit:
Be it known that 1, CHARLES N. FORREST, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Rahway, in the county of Union and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes of Treating Gilsonit, whereof the following is a specification.
My invention relates to Gilsonit products id their manufacture, and its object is the ap-reduction from gilsonit of various fistful substances in a commercially practicable and economical way. The novelty of my invention resides not only in my processes and methods of manufacture, but extends, also, to some of the substances obtained, which are in themselves new.
My present application, it will be understood, is in part a continuation of my application, Serial No. 195,721. filed October 10, 1917, under the title Liquid hydrocarbon.
Gilsonit is a natural solid bitumen, of well-known physical properties, including a peculiar, characteristic co nchoidal fracture, found principally in certain sections of Utah. As compared with other natural bitumen in their native state, it is remarkable for its very high degree of purity.
Its specific gravity at 7 7 F. varies over a range of, approximately, 1.040 to 1.056. It has been used as an ingredient in paints and varnishes; in paving, waterproofing, and roofing ‘compo-unds;-‘ and in rubber manufactures.
Of the chemical nature or possibilities of Gilsonit, practically nothing is a known. Scientific investigations heretofore attempted have been perfunctory, abortive, and inconclusive; and exploitation commercially has not even been attempted.
The vague state of the world’s informas I I 1 3 tion regarding gilsonit prior to my invention is well illustrated in a paper by Day entitled Investigation of Utah gilsonit, a variety of asphalt read June 18, 1895, before the chemical section of the Franklin Institute (Journal 0 the Franklin Institute, Vol. 140, pp.
9,1919; Serial No. 318,588.
others are such as naturally to discourage all expectation of useful products from gilsonit.
Days’ work avowedly failed of attaining the definite information that he sought regarding the nature of gilsonit; and his own tentative conclusions go very little further than that distillation of gilsonit is unpromising, and that future work on the substance should be along the lines of direct treatment with reagents such as nitric and sulphuric acids, according to a method outlined as a result of his investigation.
While the indefiniteness of his descriptions makes any attempt to repeat or reproduce his work quite futile, such data and results as he does report, nevertheless, show very clearly that he could not really have been working with true Gilsonit at all, -except, – perhaps, in admixture with dominant amounts of other substances.
Thus he states that the material on which he worked was lighter than water, whereas in fact gilsonit is heavier; that when heated, his material gave a final, irreducible residue of some 43%, whereas gilsonit yields no more than 30% of residue that all the volatile matter driven 011’ by distillation was condensable by water cooling, whereas gilsonit yields such substantial proportions as some 15% of vapor not’so condensable, including some 13% of well-known gases; that no solid separated out in any of his distillations, whereas, under the gen and nitrogen together, whereas gilsonit contains .-about -2 to 3%-of n1trogen I alone; and that his refining operations consumed a proportion of. the oil treated that is almost unbelievable. It is also noteworthy that he does not mention the peculiar con- ‘sonite.
sawdust and fresh herring, ‘Day tells of making,
choidal fracture so characteristic of gil in a, later paper (Am: Philosophical So ciety, Proc.,’Yp; :37, pp. 171-474; 1898), by distillation of pine a substance which he found practically indistinguish able from native gilsonit.

How you can check ash of Gilsonit
The term mineral matter refers to the inorganic constituents of coal and is all of the elements that are not part of the organic coal substance (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). The mineral matter is the principal source of the elements that make up the ash when the coal is burned in air or oxygen. Four of the five elements generally considered to be organic (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur) are also present in inorganic combination in coals.
Carbon is present in mineral (usually, calcium, magnesium, and iron) carbonates; hydrogen is present in free water and in water of hydration; oxygen is present in oxides, water, sulfates, and silicates; and sulfur is present in sulfides and sulfates. Mineral matter in coal is usually classified as inherent mineral matter, or adventitious mineral matter. Inherent mineral matter is the inorganic material that is too closely associated with the coal substance to be readily separated from it by methods available at present. Adventitious mineral matter is the inorganic material that is less intimately associated with the coal and can readily be separated.
There are also suggestions that the minerals transported and deposited in the peat swamp by wind and water be called allogenic or detrital. And that the remaining minerals, all of which formed in place. be divided in to those that formed contemporaneously with coal formation and those whose formation followed the initial stages of coalification. mineral matter generally represents a significant proportion of coal composition, and the amount of mineral mater in coal varies from seam to seam, even along the same seam. Coals having mineral matter up to 32% by weight have been identified, and although a reasonable value for the average amount of mineral matter is much lower , caution is advised when using average numbers.
The average usually bears no relationship to reality, where the range can vary from considerably above the average to considerably above the average. Coal performance on the basis of the average may be acceptable, but use of high-mineral-matter coal may cause considerable problems in a power plant. Generally, mineral matter in coal (whatever the content) is considered both undesirable and detrimental in coal utilization, and the presence of mineral matter affects almost every aspect of mining. preparation, transportation, and utilization. Coal preparation is aimed at reducing the quantity of mineral matter, and efficient use of the methods chosen depends on its concentration and composition. however, no matter how effective the coal preparation technique.
Sulfide Minerals
The dimorphs pyrite and marcasite are the dominant sulfide minerals in coal; pyrite is the more abundant. Pyrite and marcasite have different crystal forms; pyrite is isometric and marcasite is orthorhombic. These two minerals are readily observed and, to some degree. Easily removed as well as being especially interesting because they contribute significantly to the total sulfur content that causes boiler tube fouling, corrosion, and pollution by emission of sulfur dioxide when coal is burned.
Sulfate Minerals
The sulfate minerals identified in coal do not generally comprise a significant portion of the minerals identified in coal do not generally comprise a significant portion of the mineral matter in fresh, unoxidized coal samples. the iron disulfides oxidize rapidly after the coal is mined, however, and a number of hydrated sulfates have been reported in weathered coals and in coal refuse banks. The sulfates gypsum and barite are found in fresh coal. Most of the form on weathering of pyrite are various hydrated states of ferrous and ferric sulfate.
Carbonate minerals
The major cations found in the carbonate minerals in coals are calcium, magnesium, and iron, the rather pure end member calcite is dominant in some coals, whereas siderite is dominant in others. Calcite and ankerite are abundant in some coals.
Silicate Minerals
Quartz is the dominant form in which silica is found in coals, and it is ubiquitous. Or water and antigenic quartz deposited from solutions. Quartz is also a major component of clay and siltstone partings in coal that are of detrital origin.

Mixing Gilsonit into Bitumen:
This is a fairly simple procedure. A bitumen tank with a propeller stirrer with enough agitation action to create a vortex is recommended. The best choice is a “lightning” mixer or some other type of electrically powered mixer. An explosion proof motor is preferred if large dust concentrations are likely to occur.
Gilsonit should be added slowly at the vortex. Provisions should be made to recirculate the hot bitumen through recirculation piping. The most important item is that the minimum temperature should be about 170 to 175° C. Anything significantly less than this will extend mixing time. For typical (5-10%) substitution concentrations, 2-4 hours of mixing after addition is completed should be sufficient. For master batch concentrations (over 10% Gilsonit) recirculation overnight is preferred.
If the bitumen cannot be heated higher than 170°C then you may consider using Selects other Grade (60/70 mesh) or Selects Grade (200mesh) rather than HMA Modifier Grade (175°C softening point) for modification. However, each one of these Selects grades will require slightly more Gilsonit to be added, relative to HMA Modifier grade, to achieve the same level of bitumen modification. The dry Gilsonit should be poured into the hot bitumen slowly. If it is added too fast then it may agglomerate, or “ball up” at the surface. If this happens then some manual stirring to disperse the agglomerations may be required.
If a horizontal, cylindrical tank is used, then Gilsonit should be added at an opening at the top (about 0.5-1.0 meters in diameter). Again, it should be poured in slowly and stirred with a propeller mixer or a manual paddle so it does not “ball up” or agglomerate. Recirculation piping will be necessary to insure some agitation effect and proper dissolving.
Recirculation is very important to achieve proper dissolution. If mixing is done in a horizontal tank, then it is essential that the Gilsonit-modified bitumen be recirculate from the front of the tank to the back, or vice versa. This should be accomplished, even if some re-plumbing of the tank is necessary. Gilsonit does not dissolve instantly. Mixing a tank containing 10-15 MT bitumen and 5% Gilsonit addition will take about 2-4 hours to add in, and an additional 2-4 hours mixing time afterwards. Naturally, higher Gilsonit dosage levels will require longer mixing times.
Unfortunately, during mixing there is no test or checklist to determine whether the Gilsonit is blending well in the bitumen. However, if it is not, then large balls or chunks will be visible in the bitumen if it is in an open tank.
Afterwards, the best method to check whether Gilsonit was fully mixed into the bitumen is by comparing the original and final penetrations of the bitumen.
Batch Plant (Pug Mill) Mixing
First, Gilsonit should be added during the dry cycle of the mixing procedure, onto the hot aggregate rocks, before the bitumen is added. We recommend extending the total cycle time by about 15 seconds to insure proper dissolution.
PUB (Pars Universal Bitumen) Gilsonit Company has found that 5 additional seconds of dry mixing and 10 additional seconds of wet mixing maximized the Marshall Stability of the paving mix.
The Gilsonit can be stored in an additional silo at the pug mill and sprayed into the mixer. In Iran, there is frequently a dry mineral (ground limestone) silo and this material is sprayed onto the mix. Gilsonit would be handled in this same manner. A screw feeder or vane feeder that measures out the amount of Gilsonit per batch can be calibrated to measure the dosage level of Gilsonit per batch. Afterwards, the only residue left behind in the silo will be Gilsonit powder that can be easily cleaned out.
Meltable Bags
It may be much easier to pre-package Gilsonit into small, polyethylene bags with a measured amount of Gilsonit and toss them onto the hot aggregate in a batch plant. The sidewall thickness of the bag should be about 2 mils (0.005 cm). The aggregate temperature should be around 180°C. It is the aggregate temperature that is melting the bags and the Gilsonit, not the heat from the bitumen. Therefore, a temperature of 150-165°C entering the pug mill is acceptable, as long as the aggregate is sufficiently heated.
In either case, spraying Gilsonit onto aggregate or tossing bags into the pug mill, we conservatively recommend increasing the mixing time an extra 15 seconds. This will insure the Gilsonit is melted properly and dissolving into the bitumen. Finally, it is possible to just scoop or shovel a precise number of kilos of Gilsonit per batch onto the hot aggregate, no re-packaging — just hand labor.
Continuous Plant (Drum) Mixing
Gilsonit may be introduced into a continuous mixing plant via a screw auger. It should be added at a point inside the drum where the bitumen is added. The screw auger should be controlled by a drive motor that is calibrated to the plant’s production rate. The auger should enter the drum at the opposite end from the flame. Care should be taken to insure that Gilsonit is not caught up in the air stream and delivered to the bag house. It should be added right under the bitumen output so that a part of the Gilsonit is taken down by the bitumen to mix with the aggregate.
Paving Procedures
PUB (Pars Universal Bitumen) Gilsonit Company does not recommend any special paving procedures just because Gilsonit resin has been added to the paving mix. After modification with Gilsonit, the final bitumen will have a significantly lowered penetration, a significantly increased viscosity and a moderately increased softening point. Gilsonit modification creates a highly stable, easily workable paving mix.
We recommend normal paving procedures and normal lay-down temperatures. If the increase in viscosity resulting from Gilsonit’s modification presents any flow ability problems, we recommend the contractor operates at the higher end of his normal operating lay-down temperature range. During cold weather, 5 to 10°C, Gilsonit-modified mixes may tend to set-up slightly faster than standard mixes. In this case, the initial roller may follow the paver a little close and the finish roller may not have to stay back as far.

What is Gilsonit?
Gilsonit Analysis:
Iran Gilsonit analysis is variable depend on mine and location of the Gilsonit Zone.

Gilsonit outlook
PUB (Pars Universal Bitumen) Gilsonit Company and its producer and miner of natural asphalt and processing, exporting to more than 180 countries. Because natural asphalt has a large molecular weight distribution and a high molecular weight the softening point is high compared to other types of polymers, which allows it to soften or deform as it is nears its softening point instead of completely melting into a low‐viscosity liquid. Even when Gilsonit is 20 degrees above its softening point, it is still a high‐viscosity liquid.
From the original source hard natural petroleum, Gilsonit formed with a polymer backbone that is high in functional nitrogen, which gives Gilsonit excellent adhesion and binding properties. It is a natural mineral ore that allows it to be exempt from registration under the European REACH regulations.
The only commercially viable Gilsonit deposits are located in the Kermanshah in west of Iran. The deposits form in vertical veins and families of veins throughout the deposit area. Gilsonit was formed when a unique geologic event caused tension fractures in the rock structure above an existing proto‐petroleum deposit. This allowed the precursor of Gilsonit to extrude into the cracks in a very pure form. As this material sat in the veins for millions of years, it hardened into the Gilsonit we mine today.
Gilsonit is mined by sinking a shaft into the vein with a series of drifts and slopes extending in opposite directions. Because Gilsonit is a light, friable material we mine it by hand with air‐operated jackhammers and convey the ore from the mine face to the surface with an airlift.
Since the 1950’s we have mined Gilsonit underground, therefore our production is based on the number of miners we have, as well as the number of working faces, we have available to send them to. The development of a new mine is complicated, labor intensive, and it takes time; about 9‐18 months from the time we start the development of a mine until it is in production.
The main markets we sell Gilsonit into are the oilfield and printing ink industries. In the oilfield, Gilsonit is used as a fluid loss control agent and shale stabilizer for oil-based drilling fluids (OBM), and water-based drilling fluids (WBM). It is also used as a loss circulation material and slurry density reducer for cementing fluids. Because of the high softening point and high molecular weight distribution, when Gilsonit is added to the drilling fluid, it acts as a fluid loss control agent and shale stabilizer by partially melting or deforming. This semi‐soft material then plugs off micro‐fractures in the formation and smears the inside of the well bore to make a tight, tough filter cake.
As the drilling fluid continuously circulates, some of the Gilsonit dissolves into the fluid imparting both coating and rheological properties to the fluid. The lubrication from an increase in drilling fluid viscosity and the thin, smooth filter cake sealing off and stabilizing problem formations makes Gilsonit effective in preventing stuck pipe. The main difference between the application of Gilsonit in OBM and WBM is how Gilsonit is added to the drilling fluid system. While it can be added directly in both applications, some people add Gilsonit to a WBM system in a solution with glycol usually referred to as “liquid” Gilsonit.
In cementing fluids, Gilsonit is used as a lost circulation material (LCM) because of its plugging and binding properties. As it is a light material, it is also used as a slurry density reducer in some specialty cementing fluids.
The adhesion properties of Gilsonit are critical to the application in the printing ink industry. In black publication type printing ink, Gilsonit both disperses the carbon black and acts as a binding agent to hold the carbon black pigment to the paper. This makes for a very crisp image that does not smear or rub off in newspapers and magazines.
At PUB Gilsonit Company we understand how critical we are in many of the products our customers make and we are committed not only to meeting the market demand, but also to growing our production to meet the future demand. The ability of any mining company to meet the long‐term demand of the market is based on two things –the available mineral reserves and the ability to get those reserves into production. We are continually adding to our reserves and a recent update shows that in the proven and probable category, we have enough Gilsonit in the ground to supply at our current rate for many decades to come.
Over the last several years, PUB Gilsonit Company has been investing millions to put in new mines and adding staff to increase our production to meet the demand of the market. Beginning in 2005, we radically increased our capital expenditures to multiple times the previous years and we continued to invest heavily developing new mines through 212.
We planned for an increase in demand in 2011, but the actual increase was more than we anticipated. Despite our best efforts to expedite the completion of several mines that were in various stages of development, we were not able to increase our production to meet the demand of the market. This forced us into long lead‐times and put all of our products in allocation. Through our efforts in 2011 and continued investment in 2012, we are now producing and selling at record levels. Even at our record level of sales we have reduced our lead‐times back to a more acceptable two weeks and most of our products are no longer on allocation.
This year we have taken additional steps to increase our reliability. PUB Gilsonit Company has engaged world‐class mining consulting firms to help us with projects to more effectively operate our mines and adapting technologies to more efficiently plan our mining development. In addition, outside consulting firms are reviewing our existing operations to ensure that we continue to operate with the best health and safety practices in the industry.
As you have seen, Gilsonit is truly a unique material from how it was formed millions of years ago with a one-of-a-kind geologic event to how we continue to mine the ore by hand today in underground mines. The unique properties of Gilsonit make it a critical material for many oilfield drilling fluid products. In OBM and WBM systems, Gilsonit is the preferred product for high temperature fluid loss control, shale stabilization, and minimization of stuck pipe. In printing inks, Gilsonit is critical for carbon dispersion as well as the excellent binding properties required for high quality printing inks. PUB Gilsonit Company is spending millions to increase our supply to meet the current level of demand of the oilfield, and we plan to continue to invest heavily to ensure a reliable supply of Gilsonit to the oilfield market now and into the future because we know how important we are to the success of our customers in the drilling industry. Today is a great day to be a customer of PUB Gilsonit Company.

Gilsonit Price
Price of Iran Gilsonit (natural bitumen) is depending on weather. If rain comes since the most of natural asphalt mines are belong to local people and exploring is not modern while rain coming whole of mine will get full of water and nobody could work on till dry season.
At this time stocker or anybody who has ready goods increasing the price and market will become hot. Some of customer who needs to pulverize the Gilsonit also are unable to do since it is wet and could not grind.
Rainy season in Gilsonit mines will start from October to March and it is tropical mode.
So Gilsonit customer is better to buy the raw material during March to October to be in safe side and do not face with lack of raw material.

Gilsonit Usage
Gilsonit using as below application
1. Oil base drilling.
Oil based drilling fluids and advances in drilling fluid compositions are described in applicant’s co-pending application PCT CA2007/000646 filed April 18, 2007 and incorporated herein by reference. This co-pending application describes the chemistry of organoclays and primary emulsifiers for use in various applications including oil-based drilling fluids and various compositions wherein the viscosity of the compositions may be controlled.
By way of background and in the particular case of oil muds or oil-based drilling fluids, organophilic clays have been used in the past 50 years as a component of the drilling fluid to assist in creating drilling fluids having properties that enhance the drilling process. In particular, oil-based drilling fluids are used for cooling and lubrication, removal of cuttings and maintaining the well under pressure to control ingress of liquid and gas.
A typical oil-based drilling mud includes an oil component (the continuous phase), a water component (the dispersed phase) and an organophilic clay (hereinafter OC) which are mixed together to form a gel (also referred to as a drilling mud or oil mud). Emulsifiers, weight agents, fluid loss additives, salts and numerous other additives may be contained or dispersed into the mud. The ability of the drilling mud to maintain viscosity and emulsion stability generally determines the quality of the drilling mud.
2. Printing ink
ER resins are “engineered resins”; the term “ER resin” or “Gilsonit ER resin”, as used herein, means a purified fraction of uintaite. These fractions are substantially enriched in maltenes or asphaltenes relative to natural uintaite. Merely dissolving uintaite in a solvent in which it is soluble (i.e., a solvent that dissolves greater than about 90% of the uintaite) and filtering this solution does not produce a purified fraction of uintaite as defined herein. Such a simple filtration process does not substantially change the asphaltene to maltene ratio from that of natural uintaite.
Therefore, it does not produce the asphaltene-enriched and maltene-enriched purified fraction of uintaite useful in this invention.
The term “maltene”, as used herein, refers to the fraction of uintaite that is dissolved when finely ground uintaite is contacted with 20 volumes of hot heptane at 80 solution is filtered through a 0.8-micron filter. Maltene-enriched fractions of uintaite, such as ER-140 and ER-115, have a weight ratio of maltenes to asphaltenes of greater than about 6; preferably greater than about 15; most preferably these resins are substantially free of asphaltenes, i.e., less than 2 wt. % asphaltenes. Moreover, these resins are also substantially free of ash.
Maltene-enriched ER resins as defined herein have softening points below about 140 relatives to natural uintaite; they have at least 50% fewer asphaltenes than natural uintaite, preferably at least 75% fewer, and more preferably at least 90% fewer. These maltene-enriched ER resins also have reduced mineral-derived insoluble, i.e., ash. These insoluble are below 0.1% by weight, preferably below 0.05%. The maltene-enriched fractions of uintaite useful in this invention comprise at least 60% maltenes, preferably at least 80% maltenes and most preferably at least 90% maltenes.
Maltene-enriched ER resins have lower softening points than those of natural uintaite. Solution viscosity, viscosity stability and melt viscosity are also substantially improved over available grades of natural uintaite. The less soluble, high melting, asphaltene-enriched fractions are also called ER resins.
3. Roofing felt
It may be well to preliminary discuss one of the ingredients which I employnamely, what is known as gilsonit or uintahite, a comparatively new hydrocarbon product, the nature of which is explained in an article by Locke, appearing in the Transactions of American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 16, page 162. This article states, among other things, that gilsonit possesses superior qualities as the principal ingredient in a roofing composition, and appreciating this fact I have in evolvingthe presentinvention aimed to produce a composition which will effectively utilize this substance. Used alone gilsonit has not proven satisfactory for roofing or paving purposes, being too brittle, and, moreover, not adapted for use as a base which can be tempered down to the proper consistency. I propose to combine gilsonit with asphaltum and a suitable oil in such a manner that the advantages of the gilsonit as an ingredient of a roofing composition can be had, the asphaltum supplying the deficiencies ap- ‘parent when the gilsonit is used alone, and I am thus’ enabled to procure a mixture that possesses elastic and pliable properties such. as desired in roofing-sheets and one which is at the same time durable andpossessed of the required commercial characteristics
4. Paint and coat
There are few prior art coating compositions which combine the highly desired characteristics of economy, low raw material cost and compatibility with most of the raw materials used in the paint, varnish and enamel in dustry, and at the same time are also highly resistant to acid and alkali materials, non-corrosive toward the surface upon which they are applied, weather-resistant and of high electrical insulating value. There is, however, one composition which possesses all of these properties. This composition is one containing gilsonit as a principal constituent. For example, a Gilsonit and drying oil composition possesses all of these desirable qualities to a considerable extent.
Gilsonit is one of the purest natural bituniens available and is used’in the manufacture of black varnishes, coach varnishes, black baking enamels, japaris, insulating compositions and water-proofing compositions. Two counties in the State of Utah are the sole source of commercial quantities of gilsonit in this country. Gilsonit as mined in these counties varies in its properties from one deposit to another and its properties often vary. within a given deposit. In addition, many ofthe more accesssible deposits are being depleted. Consequently, theindustry is faced with the problem of providing a suitable replacement material for Gilsonit in such compositions.
5. Mix with asphalt
The use of bitumen (asphalt) compositions in preparing aggregate compositions (including, but not just limited to, bitumen and rock) useful as road paving material is complicated by at least three factors, each of which imposes a serious challenge to providing an acceptable product. First, the bitumen compositions must meet certain performance criteria or specifications in order to be considered useful for road paying.
For example, to ensure acceptable performance, state and federal agencies issue specifications for various bitumen applications including specifications for use as road pavement. Current Federal Highway Administration specifications require a bitumen (asphalt) product to meet defined parameters relating to properties such as viscosity, toughness, tenacity and ductility. Each of these parameters defines a critical feature of the bitumen composition, and compositions failing to meet one or more of these parameters will render that composition unacceptable for use as road pavement material. [0003] Conventional bitumen compositions frequently cannot meet all of the requirements of a particular specification simultaneously and, if these specifications are not met, damage to the resulting road can occur, including, but not necessarily limited to, permanent deformation, thermally induced cracking and flexural fatigue.
This damage greatly reduces the effective life of paved roads. [0004] In this regard, it has long been recognized that the properties of conventional bitumen compositions can be modified by the addition of other substances, such as polymers and asphaltites such as gilsonit. Gilsonit and other asphaltites are used as performance-enhancing agents forasphalt mixes.
Gilsonit-modified paving mixes achieve higher performance grades (PG) and incorporate into an asphalt blend with no need for high shear muling as in the case with some other modifiers. The use of SBS (styrene-butadiene- styrene) polymers may be partially or totally replaced by, or complemented bys the presence of gilsonit. Gilsonit-modified asphalts can have higher stability, reduced deformation, reduced temperature susceptibility and increased resistance to water stripping as compared to non-modified asphalts. A difficulty in using gilsonit as an asphalt modifier is that it is a solid, which is more difficultly handled and incorporated into a viscous bitumen.

How Order Gilsonit:
To order Gilsonit please specify
How many MT?
2. Lump or powder?
3. If powder what mesh size?
4. What packing?
5. What is application?
6. Where is destination?

Gilsonit Lab:
PUB (Pars Universal Bitumen) Gilsonit Company is ion vendor of research institute of petroleum industry which is belonging to minister of Petroleum.
There are many national and international specifications and tests stipulated by various authorities, contracts and building regulations around the world. At BUB Gilsonit Company we try to offer as many as we can, while accepting that we cannot offer all things to all of our stakeholders everywhere, given the limited volumes per location. We offer:
Analysis of commercial bulk Gilsonit to ASTM, ISO, EN and similar specifications
Analysis of the basic Gilsonit performance such as:
Penetration numbers
Needle penetration
Cone penetration
Melting point
Storage monitoring to assess oxidation state
Testing of packing Gilsonit over time to asses batch lifetime
All testing laboratories participate in an international proficiency test scheme for Gilsonit. These round robin tests act as a performance indicator and help to maintain a consistently high level of quality and assurance from our labs.
PUB Gilsonit Company inspections Gilsonit cargoes are carried out on the basis of accepted petroleum and petrochemical standards such as ASTM, GOST, API, MPMS, UOP, IP or EN testing methods and specifications as set out by ISO, CEN or national and regional standards-setting organizations.

Gilsonit HS Code
HS code of natural asphalt (Gilsonit) is 27149000.
Some other similar product is same as below:
natural bitumen, natural asphalt, nature bitumen, nature asphalt , asphaltite , asphalt gestein
mineral bitumen, natural tar, mineral tar, natural bitumen, rock asphalt.

Gilsonit MSDS
This Material Safety Data Sheet contains environmental, health and toxicology information for your employees. Please make sure this information is given to them. It also contains information to help you meet community right-to-know/emergency response reporting requirements under SARA Title III and many other laws. If you resell this product, this MSDS must be given to the buyer or the information incorporated in your MSDS. Discard any previous edition of this MSDS.
This MSDS is formatted to provide you with useful hazard warnings and health evaluations and to facilitate your compliance with local, State and country regulations.
1. Product Identification
A Hazard warning is not required for this product under osha hazard communication standards
(29 CFR 1910.1200)
No first aid procedures are required. However, as a precaution flush eyes with fresh water for 15 minutes. Remove contact lenses if worn.
No first aid procedures are required. As a precaution, wash skin thoroughly with soap and water. Remove and wash contaminated clothing.
If any signs or symptoms as described in this document occur, move the person to fresh air. If any of these effects continue, see a doctor.
Not expected to be an ingestion problem, no first aid procedures are required.
This substance may cause eye irritation due to the abrasive action of the dust. The degree of the injury will depend on the amount of material that gets into the eye and the speed and thoroughness of the first aid treatment. Signs and symptoms may include pain, tears, swelling, redness, and blurred vision. This hazard evaluation is based on the data from similar materials.
This substance is not expected to cause prolonged or significant skin irritation. This hazard evaluation is based on data from similar materials.
Breathing the dust at concentrations that exceed the recommended exposure standard may be irritating to the respiratory tract. Signs and symptoms of respiratory tract irritation may include, but may not be limited to, one or more of the following: nasal discharge, sore throat, coughing, bronchitis, pulmonary edema and difficulty in breathing.
The systemic toxicity of this substance has not been determined. However, it should be practically non-toxic to internal organs if swallowed.

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